设计模式(二十一)———状态模式(State Pattren):用类表示状态

设计模式(二十一)———状态模式(State Pattren):用类表示状态

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Intent

当一个对象的内在状态改变时,允许改变其行为,这个对象看起来像是改变了其类。

应用实例

  • 打篮球的时候运动员可以有正常状态、不正常状态和超常状态。
  • 曾侯乙编钟中,'钟是抽象接口','钟A'等是具体状态,'曾侯乙编钟'是具体环境(Context)。

使用场景

  • 行为随状态改变而改变的场景。
  • 条件、分支语句的代替者。

优点

  • 枚举可能的状态,在枚举状态之前需要确定状态种类。
  • 将所有与某个状态有关的行为放到一个类中,并且可以方便地增加新的状态,只需要改变对象状态即可改变对象的行为。
  • 允许状态转换逻辑与状态对象合成一体,而不是某一个巨大的条件语句块。
  • 可以让多个环境对象共享一个状态对象,从而减少系统中对象的个数。

缺点

  • 状态模式的使用必然会增加系统类和对象的个数。
  • 状态模式的结构与实现都较为复杂,如果使用不当将导致程序结构和代码的混乱。
  • 状态模式对"开闭原则"的支持并不太好,对于可以切换状态的状态模式,增加新的状态类需要修改那些负责状态转换的源代码,否则无法切换到新增状态,而且修改某个状态类的行为也需修改对应类的源代码。

Class Diagram

image.png

State(状态)

State角色表示状态,定义了根据不同状态进行不同处理的接口(API)。该API是那些处理内容依赖于状态的方法的集合。

ConcreteState(具体状态)

ConcreteState角色表示各个具体的状态,他实现了State接口扮演此角色。

Context(状况、前后关系、上下文)

Context角色持有表示当前状态的ConcreteState角色。此外,它还定义了供外部调用者使用State模式的接口(API)

Implementation

糖果销售机有多种状态,每种状态下销售机有不同的行为,状态可以发生转移,使得销售机的行为也发生改变。

image

public interface State {
    /**
     * 投入 25 分钱
     */
    void insertQuarter();

    /**
     * 退回 25 分钱
     */
    void ejectQuarter();

    /**
     * 转动曲柄
     */
    void turnCrank();

    /**
     * 发放糖果
     */
    void dispense();
}
public class HasQuarterState implements State {

    private GumballMachine gumballMachine;

    public HasQuarterState(GumballMachine gumballMachine) {
        this.gumballMachine = gumballMachine;
    }

    @Override
    public void insertQuarter() {
        System.out.println("You can't insert another quarter");
    }

    @Override
    public void ejectQuarter() {
        System.out.println("Quarter returned");
        gumballMachine.setState(gumballMachine.getNoQuarterState());
    }

    @Override
    public void turnCrank() {
        System.out.println("You turned...");
        gumballMachine.setState(gumballMachine.getSoldState());
    }

    @Override
    public void dispense() {
        System.out.println("No gumball dispensed");
    }
}
public class NoQuarterState implements State {

    GumballMachine gumballMachine;

    public NoQuarterState(GumballMachine gumballMachine) {
        this.gumballMachine = gumballMachine;
    }

    @Override
    public void insertQuarter() {
        System.out.println("You insert a quarter");
        gumballMachine.setState(gumballMachine.getHasQuarterState());
    }

    @Override
    public void ejectQuarter() {
        System.out.println("You haven't insert a quarter");
    }

    @Override
    public void turnCrank() {
        System.out.println("You turned, but there's no quarter");
    }

    @Override
    public void dispense() {
        System.out.println("You need to pay first");
    }
}
public class SoldOutState implements State {

    GumballMachine gumballMachine;

    public SoldOutState(GumballMachine gumballMachine) {
        this.gumballMachine = gumballMachine;
    }

    @Override
    public void insertQuarter() {
        System.out.println("You can't insert a quarter, the machine is sold out");
    }

    @Override
    public void ejectQuarter() {
        System.out.println("You can't eject, you haven't inserted a quarter yet");
    }

    @Override
    public void turnCrank() {
        System.out.println("You turned, but there are no gumballs");
    }

    @Override
    public void dispense() {
        System.out.println("No gumball dispensed");
    }
}

public class SoldState implements State {

    GumballMachine gumballMachine;

    public SoldState(GumballMachine gumballMachine) {
        this.gumballMachine = gumballMachine;
    }

    @Override
    public void insertQuarter() {
        System.out.println("Please wait, we're already giving you a gumball");
    }

    @Override
    public void ejectQuarter() {
        System.out.println("Sorry, you already turned the crank");
    }

    @Override
    public void turnCrank() {
        System.out.println("Turning twice doesn't get you another gumball!");
    }

    @Override
    public void dispense() {
        gumballMachine.releaseBall();
        if (gumballMachine.getCount() > 0) {
            gumballMachine.setState(gumballMachine.getNoQuarterState());
        } else {
            System.out.println("Oops, out of gumballs");
            gumballMachine.setState(gumballMachine.getSoldOutState());
        }
    }
}

public class GumballMachine {

    private State soldOutState;
    private State noQuarterState;
    private State hasQuarterState;
    private State soldState;

    private State state;
    private int count = 0;

    public GumballMachine(int numberGumballs) {
        count = numberGumballs;
        soldOutState = new SoldOutState(this);
        noQuarterState = new NoQuarterState(this);
        hasQuarterState = new HasQuarterState(this);
        soldState = new SoldState(this);

        if (numberGumballs > 0) {
            state = noQuarterState;
        } else {
            state = soldOutState;
        }
    }

    public void insertQuarter() {
        state.insertQuarter();
    }

    public void ejectQuarter() {
        state.ejectQuarter();
    }

    public void turnCrank() {
        state.turnCrank();
        state.dispense();
    }

    public void setState(State state) {
        this.state = state;
    }

    public void releaseBall() {
        System.out.println("A gumball comes rolling out the slot...");
        if (count != 0) {
            count -= 1;
        }
    }

    public State getSoldOutState() {
        return soldOutState;
    }

    public State getNoQuarterState() {
        return noQuarterState;
    }

    public State getHasQuarterState() {
        return hasQuarterState;
    }

    public State getSoldState() {
        return soldState;
    }

    public int getCount() {
        return count;
    }
}
public class Client {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        GumballMachine gumballMachine = new GumballMachine(5);

        gumballMachine.insertQuarter();
        gumballMachine.turnCrank();

        gumballMachine.insertQuarter();
        gumballMachine.ejectQuarter();
        gumballMachine.turnCrank();

        gumballMachine.insertQuarter();
        gumballMachine.turnCrank();
        gumballMachine.insertQuarter();
        gumballMachine.turnCrank();
        gumballMachine.ejectQuarter();

        gumballMachine.insertQuarter();
        gumballMachine.insertQuarter();
        gumballMachine.turnCrank();
        gumballMachine.insertQuarter();
        gumballMachine.turnCrank();
        gumballMachine.insertQuarter();
        gumballMachine.turnCrank();
    }
}

输出结果

You insert a quarter
You turned...
A gumball comes rolling out the slot...
You insert a quarter
Quarter returned
You turned, but there's no quarter
You need to pay first
You insert a quarter
You turned...
A gumball comes rolling out the slot...
You insert a quarter
You turned...
A gumball comes rolling out the slot...
You haven't insert a quarter
You insert a quarter
You can't insert another quarter
You turned...
A gumball comes rolling out the slot...
You insert a quarter
You turned...
A gumball comes rolling out the slot...
Oops, out of gumballs
You can't insert a quarter, the machine is sold out
You turned, but there are no gumballs
No gumball dispensed